Terraforming Azure DevOps

Background

In many organizations, specially in large enterprises there’s a need to automate Azure DevOps projects and Teams members. Manually managing large number of Azure DevOps projects, Teams for these projects and users to the teams, on-boarding and off-boarding team members are not trivial.

Besides managing the users sometimes, we just need to have an overview (a documentation?) of users and Teams of Projects. Terraform is a great tool for Infrastructure as Code – which not only allows providing infrastructure on demand, but also gives us nice documentation which can be versioned control in a source control system. The workflow kind of looks like following:

GitOps

I am developing a Terraform Provider for Azure DevOps that helps me use Terraform for provisioning Azure DevOps projects, Teams and members. In this article I will share how I am building it.

Note
This provider doesn't implement the complete set of 
Azure DevOps REST APIs. 
Its limited to only projects, teams and member associations. 
It's not recommended to use it in production scenarios.

Terraform Provider

Terrafom is an amazing tool that lets you define your infrastructure as code. Under the hood it’s an incredibly powerful state machine that makes API requests and marshals resources. Terraform has lots of providers – almost for every major cloud – out there. Including many other systems – like Kubernetes, Palo-Alto Networks etc.

In nutshell if any system has REST API that can be manipulated with Terraform Provider. Azure DevOps also has a terraform provider – which doesn’t currently provide resources to create Teams and members. Hence, I am writing my own – shamelessly using/stealing the Microsoft’s Terraform provider (referenced above) for project creation.

Setting up GO Environment

Terraform Providers and plugins are binaries that Terraform communicates during runtime via RPC. It’s theoretically possible to write a provider in any language, but to be honest, I haven’t come across any providers that were written other languages than GO. Terraform provide helper libraries in Go to aid in writing and testing providers.

I am developing in Windows 10 and didn’t want to install GO on my local machine. Containers come to rescue of course. I am using the “Remote development” extension in VS Code. This extension allows me to keep the source code in local machine and compile, build the source code in a container like Magic!

remote

Figure: Remote Development extension in VSCode – running container to build local repository.

Creating the provider

To create a Terraform provider we need to write the logic for managing the Creation, Reading, Updating and Deletion (CRUD) of a resource (i.e. Azure DevOps project, Team and members in this scenario) and Terraform will take care of the rest; state, locking, templating language and managing the lifecycle of the resources. Here in this repository I have a minimum implementation that supports creating Azure DevOps projects, Teams and its members.

First of all we define our provider and resources in main.go file.

Next to that, we will define the provider schema (the attributes it supports as input and outputs, resources etc.)

We are using Azure DevOps personal Access token to communicate to the Azure DevOps REST API. The GO client for Azure DevOps from Microsoft – which is used as dependency, immensely simplified the implementation and also helped learning the flow.

Now defining the “team” resource as following:

That’s all for declaring, now implementing the CRUD methods in resource providers. The full source code is in GitHub.

We can compile the provider application using following command:

> GOOS=windows GOARCH=amd64 go build -o terraform-provider-azuredevops.exe

As I am using Dabian docker image for GoLang I need to specify my target OS (GOOS=windows) and CPU Architecture (GOARCH=amd64) when I build the provider. This will produce the terraform provider for Azure DevOps executable.

Although it’s executable, it’s not meant to launch directly from command prompt. Instead, I will copy it to “%APPDATA%\ terraform.d\plugins\windows_amd64” folder of my machine.

Terraform Script for Azrue DevOps

Now we can write the Terraform file (.tf) that will describe the Azure DevOps Project, Team and members etc.

Terraform

With this terraform file, we can now launch the following command to initialize our terraform environment.

init

The terraform init command is used to initialize a working directory containing Terraform configuration files. This is the first command that should be run after writing a new Terraform configuration or cloning an existing one from version control.

Terraform plan

The terraform plan command is used to create an execution plan. Terraform performs a refresh, and then determines what actions are necessary to achieve the desired state specified in the configuration files. This command is a convenient way to check whether the execution plan for a set of changes matches your expectations without making any changes to real resources or to the state. For example, terraform plan might be run before committing a change to version control, to create confidence that it will behave as expected.

PLan

Figure: terraform plan output – shows exactly what is going to happen if we apply these changes to Azure DevOps

Terraform apply

The terraform apply command is used to apply the changes required to reach the desired state of the configuration, or the pre-determined set of actions generated by a terraform plan execution plan. We will launch it with an “-auto-approve” flag to assert the approval prompt.

apply

Now we can go to our Azure DevOps and sure enough there’s a new project created with the configuration as we scripted in Terraform file.

Taking it further

Now we can check in the terraform file (main.tf above) into an Azure DevOps repository and put a Branch policy to it. That will force any changes (such as creating new projects, adding removing team members) would requrie a Pull-Request and needs to be reviewed by peers (four-eyes principles). Once Pull-Requests are approved, a simple Azure Pipeline can trigger that does the terraform apply. And I have my workflow automated  and I also have nice histories in GIT – which records the purpose of any changes made in past.

Thanks for reading!

Inter-process communication on Windows Containers

Background

Legacy monolith applications that are built to run on single beefy server can take advantage of containers to simplify the deployment model and also potentially opens possibility to re-architect piece by piece without triggering a complete rewrite. I ran into a scenario where I am considering wrap up a large monolith (with many threads in it) into multiple containers and introduce some mode of execution. Therefore, each container instance runs a specific mode of operations and leads to a micro-service-based architecture in future. Splitting into containers is rather easier, but then I needed to introduce an IPC mechanism to enable communication between these container instances. In this post, I will write some IPC options that I have exercised in these scenarios.

The application is written in .net framework; therefore, I couldn’t use .net core and Linux machines. I have only investigated windows containers. I have tried following technologies for IPC and did some bench marking on latency.

Environment and Hardware specs

Most of these IPC technologies (e.g. TCP, gRPC, Web Sockets) also allow remote invocations, but I have only tried on single machine- as that’s what I wanted to investigate. I have run these benchmarks on windows 10 client machine with following configuration:

BenchmarkDotNet=v0.11.5, OS=Windows 10.0.18362

Intel Core i7-8650U CPU 1.90GHz (Kaby Lake R), 1 CPU, 8 logical and 4 physical cores

[Host]: .NET Framework 4.7.2 (CLR 4.0.30319.42000), 32bit LegacyJIT-v4.8.3815.0

Windows Container: Quick refresh

Windows Server containers provide application isolation through process and namespace isolation technology. That is often referred to as process-isolated containers. A Windows Server container shares a kernel with the container host and all containers running on the host. These process-isolated containers don’t provide a hostile security boundary and shouldn’t be used to isolate untrusted code. Because of the shared kernel space, these containers require the same kernel version and configuration.

However, windows containers also provide a different type of isolation – called Hyper-V isolation. Hyper-V isolation expands on the isolation provided by Windows Server containers by running each container in a highly optimized virtual machine.

HyperV conainers
Windows Container Hyper-V isolation

In this configuration, the container host doesn’t share its kernel with other containers on the same host. These containers are designed for hostile multi-tenant hosting with the same security assurances of a virtual machine. Since these containers don’t share the kernel with the host or other containers on the host, they can run kernels with different versions and configurations (within supported versions). For example, all Windows containers on Windows 10 use Hyper-V isolation to utilize the Windows Server kernel version and configuration.

Running a container on Windows with or without Hyper-V isolation is a runtime decision. We can initially create the container with Hyper-V isolation, and then later at runtime choose to run it as a Windows Server container instead.

I have run the IPC stack for each technology in three different setups.

  • Bare metal (running on my windows 10 client)
  • Two containers (server and client) running in Hyper-V isolation (–isolation=hyperv)
  • Two containers (server and client) running in Process isolation (–isolation=process)

Measure/benchmark

IPC – by its nature is a non-deterministic operation. Hence, I wanted to measure and focus on latencies in my investigation instead of throughputs. I created some IPC handshake applications that exchanges approximately 1 KB of message from client to server. I ran it in different frequencies (>10000 times) and measured the percentiles.

And of course, I am running Docker for Windows with following version:

docker-version

WCF TCP/IP Channel

TCP channel is probably the most commonly used binding in WCF applications. Here I have the simple WCF server and client that sends some bytes over the wire. TCP is a connection-based, stream-oriented delivery service with end-to-end error detection and correction. Connection-based means that a communication session between hosts is established before exchanging data. A host is any device on a TCP/IP network identified by a logical IP address.

The sample hosts a TCP server and waits for clients to connect. Once the client is connected, client sends 1KB bytes to the server for a n number of times.

WCF server

WCF Client

Running it on bare-metal:

TCP bare-metal

Now running it inside two containers (server and client) in Hyper-V isolation:

TCP-HyperV

We can see that it adds latency compare to Bare-metal. Let’s run it on process isolation mode:

TCP-Process

That improved a lot, almost as bare-metal.

gRPC

Like many RPC systems, gRPC is based around the idea of defining a service, specifying the methods that can be called remotely with their parameters and return types. By default, gRPC uses protocol buffers as the Interface Definition Language (IDL) for describing both the service interface and the structure of the payload messages. It is possible to use other alternatives if desired.

I have written a similar sample project as I did for TCP channel above but this time both the server and client uses gRPC for messaging.

Lets run the same exercise with gRPC.

gRPC

What I see is, the process isolation is pretty darn good compare to Hyper-V isolation.

Web Sockets

Web Sockets (over HTTPS) gives a easy programming model for network communication.  The WebSocket API is an advanced technology that makes it possible to open a two-way interactive communication session between the user’s browser and a server. With this API, you can send messages to a server and receive event-driven responses without having to poll the server for a reply.

I didn’t write or programmed web socket API directly though, I have used the SignalR self-hosting to do that.

In this exercise I created the same messaging with web sockets.

Web-socket

Unix Domain Sockets

Like I have mentioned above, Linux and .net core was not my option for this exercise. However, I couldn’t resist give it a shot running the same messaging over an Unix-domain-socket on Linux kernel.

Unix domain socket or IPC socket is a data communications endpoint for exchanging data between processes executing on the same host operating system. Valid socket types in the UNIX domain are: SOCK_STREAM (compare to TCP), for a stream-oriented socket; SOCK_DGRAM (compare to UDP), for a datagram-oriented socket that preserves message boundaries (as on most UNIX implementations, UNIX domain datagram sockets are always reliable and don’t reorder datagrams); and SOCK_SEQPACKET (compare to SCTP), for a sequenced-packet socket that is connection-oriented, preserves message boundaries, and delivers messages in the order that they were sent. The Unix domain socket facility is a standard component of POSIX operating systems.

Here’s what I get when running the similar messaging that leverages Unix domain sockets:

UDS

That’s blazing fast! Sadly I couldn’t use it for my purpose.

Summary

Putting all the numbers into a chart, I get this:

Graph

Disclaimer 1: Bench marking is difficult – it has so many moving factors to get everything right. I wouldn’t put any conclusive statement on it, like certain IPC technique is faster than other. But the source codes are included and you can run it on your environment and make your one judgement.

Disclaimer 2: Another interesting technology I needed to try out was windows named-pipes. The source code is in the same repository, but I couldn’t get it to work while sharing between containers. I will update the post once I have some progress there.

All remarks/questions are always welcome, Thanks for reading.

Linkerd in Azure Kubernetes Service cluster

In this article I would document my journey on setting up Linkerd Service Mesh on Azure Kubernetes service.

Background

I have a tiny Kubernetes cluster. I run some workload there, some are useful, others are just try-out, fun stuffs. I have few services that need to talk to each other. I do not have a lot of traffic to be honest, but I sometimes curiously run Apache ab to simulate load and see how my services perform under stress. Until very recently I was using a messaging (basically a pub-sub) pattern to create reactive service-to-service communication. Which works great, but often comes with a latency. I can only imagine, if I were to run these service to service communication for a mission critical high-traffic performance-driven scenario (an online game for instance), this model won’t fly well. There comes the need for a service-to-service communication pattern in cluster.

What’s big deal? We can have REST calls between services, even can implement gRPC for that matter. The issue is things behaves different at scale. When many services talks to many others, nodes fail in between, network address of PODs changes, new PODs show up, some goes down, figuring out where the service sits becomes quite a challenging task.

Then Kubernetes comes to rescue, Kubernetes provides “service”, that gives us service discovery out of the box. Which is awesome. Not all issues disappeared though. Services in a cluster need fault-tolerances, traceability and most importantly, “observability”.  Circuit-breakers, retry-logics etc. implementing them for each service is again a challenge. This is exactly the Service Mesh addresses.

Service mesh

From thoughtworks radar:

Service mesh is an approach to operating a secure, fast and reliable microservices ecosystem. It has been an important steppingstone in making it easier to adopt microservices at scale. It offers discovery, security, tracing, monitoring and failure handling. It provides these cross-functional capabilities without the need for a shared asset such as an API gateway or baking libraries into each service. A typical implementation involves lightweight reverse-proxy processes, aka sidecars, deployed alongside each service process in a separate container. Sidecars intercept the inbound and outbound traffic of each service and provide cross-functional capabilities mentioned above.

Some of us might remember Aspect Oriented programming (AOP) – where we used to separate cross cutting concerns from our core-business-concerns. Service mesh is no different. They isolate (in a separate container) these networking and fault-tolerance concerns from the core-capabilities (also running in container).

Linkerd

There are quite several service mesh solutions out there – all suitable to run in Kubernetes. I have used earlier Envoy and Istio. They work great in Kubernetes as well as VM hosted clusters. However, I must admit, I developed a preference for Linkerd since I discovered it. Let’s briefly look at how Linkerd works. Imagine the following two services, Service A and Service B. Service A talks to Service B.

service-2-service

When Linkerd installed, it works like an interceptor between all the communication between services. Linkerd uses sidecar pattern to proxy the communication by updating the KubeProxy IP Table.

Linkerd-architecture.png

Linkerd implants two sidecar containers in our PODs. The init container configures the IP table so the incoming and outgoing TCP traffics flow through the Linkerd Proxy container. The proxy container is the data plane that does the actual interception and all the other fault-tolerance goodies.

Primary reason behind my Linkerd preferences are performance and simplicity. Ivan Sim has done performance benchmarking with Linkerd and Istio:

Both the Linkerd2-meshed setup and Istio-meshed setup experienced higher latency and lower throughput, when compared with the baseline setup. The latency incurred in the Istio-meshed setup was higher than that observed in the Linkerd2-meshed setup. The Linkerd2-meshed setup was able to handle higher HTTP and GRPC ping throughput than the Istio-meshed setup.

Cluster provision

Spinning up AKS is easy as pie these days. We can use Azure Resource Manager Template or Terraform for that. I have used Terraform to generate that.

Service deployment

This is going to take few minutes and then we have a cluster. We will use the canonical emojivoto app (“buoyantio/emojivoto-emoji-svc:v8”) to test our Linkerd installation. Here’s the Kubernetes manifest file for that.

With this IaC – we can run Terraform apply to provision our AKS cluster in Azure.

Azure Pipeline

Let’s create a pipeline for the service deployment. The easiest way to do that is to create a service connection to our AKS cluster. We go to the project settings in Azure DevOps project, pick Service connections and create a new service connection of type “Kubernetes connection”.

Azure DevOps connection

Installing Linkerd

We will create a pipeline that installs Linkerd into the AKS cluster. Azure Pipeline now offers “pipeline-as-code” – which is just an YAML file that describes the steps need to be performed when the pipeline is triggered. We will use the following pipeline-as-code:

We can at this point trigger the pipeline to install Linkerd into the AKS cluster.

Linkerd installation (2)

Deployment of PODs and services

Let’s create another pipeline as code that deploys all the services and deployment resources to AKS using the following Kubernetes manifest file:

In Azure Portal we can already see our services running:

Azure KS

Also in Kubernetes Dashboard:

Kub1

We have got our services running – but they are not really affected by Linkerd yet. We will add another step into the build pipeline to tell Linkerd to do its magic.

Next thing, we trigger the pipeline and put some traffic into the service that we have just deployed. The emoji service is simulating some service to service invocation scenarios and now it’s time for us to open the Linkerd dashboard to inspect all the distributed traces and many other useful matrix to look at.

linkerd-censored

We can also see kind of an application map – in a graphical way to understand which service is calling who and what is request latencies etc.

linkerd-graph

Even fascinating, Linkerd provides some drill-down to the communications in Grafana Dashboard.

ezgif.com-gif-maker.gif

Conclusion

I have enjoyed a lot setting it up and see the outcome and wanted to share my experience with it. If you are looking into Service Mesh and read this post, I strongly encourage to give Linkerd a go, it’s awesome!

Thanks for reading.

Continuously deploy Blazor SPA to Azure Storage static web site

Lately I am learning ASP.net Blazor – the relatively new UI framework from Microsoft. Blazor is just awesome – the ability to write c# code both in server and client side is extremely productive for .net developers. From Blazor documentations:

Blazor lets you build interactive web UIs using C# instead of JavaScript. Blazor apps are composed of reusable web UI components implemented using C#, HTML, and CSS. Both client and server code is written in C#, allowing you to share code and libraries.

I wanted to write a simple SPA (Single Page Application) and run it as server-less. Azure Storage offers hosting static web sites for quite a while now. Which seems like a very nice option to run a Blazor SPA which executes into the user’s browser (within the same Sandbox as JavaScript does). It also a cheap way to run a Single Page application in Cloud.

I am using GitHub as my source repository for free (in a private repository). Today wanted to create a pipeline that will continuously deploy my Blazor app to the storage account. Azure Pipelines seems to have pretty nice integration with GitHub and it’s has a free tier as well . If either our GitHub repository or pipeline is private, Azure Pipeline still provide a free tier. In this tier, one can run one free parallel job that can run up to 60 minutes each time until we’ve used 1800 minutes per month. That’s pretty darn good for my use case.

I also wanted to build the project many times in my local machine (while developing) in the same way it gets built in the pipeline. Being a docker fan myself, that’s quite no-brainer. Let’s get started.

Pre-requisite

I have performed few steps before I ran after the pipeline – that are beyond the scope of this post.

  • I have created an Azure Subscription
  • Provisioned resource groups and storage account
  • I have created a Service Principal and granted Contributor role to the storage account

Publishing in Docker

I have created a docker file that will build the app, run unit tests and if all goes well, it will publish the app in a folder. All of these are standard dotnet commands.
Once, we have the application published in a folder, I have taken the content of that folder to a Azure CLI docker base image (where CLI is pre-installed) and thrown away the rest of the intermediate containers.

Here’s our docker file:

The docker file expects few arguments (basically the service principal ID, the password of the service principal and the Azure AD tenant ID – these are required for Azure CLI to sign-in to my Azure subscription). Here’s how we can build this image now:

Azure Pipeline as code

We have now the container, time to run it every time a commit has been made to the GitHub repository. Azure Pipeline has a yaml format to define pipeline-as-code – which is another neat feature of Azure Pipelines.

Let’s see how the pipeline-as-code looks like:

I have committed this to the same repository into the root folder.

Creating the pipeline

We need to login to Azure DevOps and create a project (if there’s none). From the build option we can create a new build definition.

ado

The steps to create build definition is very straightforward. It allows us to directly point to a GitHub repository that we want to build.
Almost there. We need to supply the service principal ID, password, tenant ID and storage account names to this pipeline – because both our docker file and the pipeline-as-code expected them as dependencies. However, we can’t just put their values and commit them to GitHub. They should be kept secret.

Azure Pipeline Secret variables

Azure Pipeline allows us to define secret variable for a pipeline. We need to open the build definition in “edit” mode and then go to the top-right ellipses button as below:

ado1

Now we can define the values of these secret and keep them hidden (there’s a lock icon there).

ad02

That’s all what we need. Ready to deploy the code to Azure storage via this pipeline. If we now go an make a change in our repository it will trigger the pipeline and sure enough it will build-test-publish-deploy to Azure storage as a Static SPA.

Thanks for reading!

OpenSSL as Service

OpenSSL is awesome! Though, requires little manual work to remember all the commands, executing them in a machine that has OpenSSL installed. In this post, I’m about to build an HTTP API over OpenSSL, with the most commonly used commands (and the possibility to extend it further – as required). This will help folks who wants to run OpenSSL in a private network but wants to orchestrate it in their automation workflows.

Background

Ever wanted to automate the TLS (also known as SSL) configuration process for your web application? You know, the sites that served via HTTPS and Chrome shows a green “secure” mark in address bar. Serving site over HTTP is insecure (even for static contents) and major browsers will mark those sites as not secure, Chrome already does that today.

Serving contents via HTTPS involves buying a digital certificate (aka SSL/TLS certificate) from certificate authorities (CA). The process seemed complicated (sometimes expensive too) by many average site owners or developers. Let’s encrypt addressed this hardship and made it painless. It’s an open certificate authority that provides free TLS certificates in an automated and elegant way.

However, free certificates might not be ideal for enterprise scenarios. Enterprise might have a requirement to buy certificate from a specific CA. In many cases, that process is manual and often complicated and slow. Typically, the workflow starts by generating a Certificate Signing request (also known as CSR) which requires generating asymmetric key pair (a public and private key pair). Which is then sent to CA to get a Digital Identity certificate. This doesn’t stop here. Once the certificate is provided by the CA, sometimes (Specially if you are in IIS, .net or Azure world) it’s needed to be converted to a PFX (Personal Information Exchange) file to deploy the certificate to the web server.

PFX (aka PKCS #12) is a file format defines an archive file format for storing many cryptography objects as a single file. It’s used to bundle a private key with it’s X.509 certificate or bundling all the members of a chain of trust. This file may be encrypted and signed. The internal storage containers (aka SafeBags), may also be encrypted and signed.

Generating CSR, converting a Digital Identity certificate to PFX format are often done manually. There are some online services that allows you generating CSRs – via an API or an UI. These are very useful and handy, but not the best fit for an enterprise. Because the private keys need to be shared with the online provider – to generate the CSR. Which leads people to use the vastly popular utility – OpenSSL in their local workstation – generating CSRs. In this article, this is exactly what I am trying to avoid. I wanted to have an API over OpenSSL – so that I can invoke it from my other automation workflow running in the Cloud.

Next, we will see how we can expose the OpenSSL over HTTP API in a Docker container, so we can run the container in our private enterprise network and orchestrate this in our certificate automation workflows.

The Solution Design

We will write a .net core web app, exposing the OpenSSL command via web API. Web API requests will fork OpenSSL process with the command and will return the outcome as web API response.

OpenSSL behind .net core Web API

We are using System.Diagnostics.Process to lunch OpenSSL in our code. This is assuming we will have OpenSSL executable present in our path. Which we will ensure soon with Docker.

        private static StringBuilder ExecuteOpenSsl(string command)
        {
            var logs = new StringBuilder();
            var executableName = "openssl";
            var processInfo = new ProcessStartInfo(executableName)
            {
                Arguments = command,
                UseShellExecute = false,
                RedirectStandardError = true,
                RedirectStandardOutput = true,
                CreateNoWindow = true
            };

            var process = Process.Start(processInfo);
            while (!process.StandardOutput.EndOfStream)
            {
                logs.AppendLine(process.StandardOutput.ReadLine());
            }
            logs.AppendLine(process.StandardError.ReadToEnd());
            return logs;
        }

This is simply kicking off OpenSSL executable with a command and capturing the output (or errors). We can now use this in our Web API controller.

    /// <summary>
    /// The Open SSL API
    /// </summary>
    [Produces("application/json")]
    [Route("api/OpenSsl")]
    public class OpenSslController : Controller
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new CSR
        /// </summary>
        /// Payload info
        /// The CSR with private key
        [HttpPost("CSR")]
        public async Task Csr([FromBody] CsrRequestPayload payload)
        {
            var response = await CertificateManager.GenerateCSRAsync(payload);
            return new JsonResult(response);
        }

This snippet only shows one example, where we are receiving a CSR generation request and using the OpenSSL to generate, returning the CSR details (in a base64 encoded string format) as API response.

Other commands are following the same model, so skipping them here.

Building Docker Image

Above snippet assumes that we have OpenSSL installed in the machine and the executable’s path is registered in our system’s path. We will turn that assumption to a fact by installing OpenSSL in our Docker image.

FROM microsoft/aspnetcore:2.0 AS base

RUN apt-get update -y
RUN apt-get install openssl

Here we are using aspnetcore:2.0 as our base image (which is a Linux distribution) and installing OpenSSL right after.

Let’s Run it!

I have built the docker image and published it to Docker Hub. All we need is to run it:

Untitled-1

The default port of the web API is 80, though in this example we will run it on 8080. Let’s open a browser pointing to:

http:localhost:8080/ 

Voila! We have our API’s. Here’s the Swagger UI for the web API.

swagger

And we can test our CSR generation API via Postman:

Postman

The complete code for this web app with Docker file can be found in this GitHub Repository. The Docker image is in Docker Hub.

Thanks for reading.

3D Docker Swarm visualizer with ThreeJS

Few days before I wrote about creating a Docker Swarm Visualizer here. I have enjoyed very much writing that peice of software. However, I wanted to have a more funny way to look at the cluster. Therefore, last weekend I thought of creating a 3D viewer of the cluster that might run on a large screen, realtime showing up the machines and their workloads.

After hacking a little bit, I ended up creating a 3D perspective of the Docker swarm cluster, that shows the nodes (workers in green, managers in blue and drained nodes in red colors and micro service containers in blue small cubes, all in real-time and by leveraging the ThreeJS library. It was just an added funny view to the existing visualizer. Hope you will like it!

You need to rebuild the docker image from the docker file in order to have the 3d view enabled. I didn’t want to include this into the moimhossain/viswarm image.

Azure template to provision Docker swarm mode cluster

What is a swarm?

The cluster management and orchestration features embedded in the Docker Engine are built using SwarmKit. Docker engines participating in a cluster are running in swarm mode. You enable swarm mode for an engine by either initializing a swarm or joining an existing swarm. A swarm is a cluster of Docker engines, or nodes, where you deploy services. The Docker Engine CLI and API include commands to manage swarm nodes (e.g., add or remove nodes), and deploy and orchestrate services across the swarm.

I was recently trying to come up with a script that generates the docker swarm cluster – ready to take container work loads on Microsoft Azure. I thought, Azure Container Service (ACS) should already have supported that. However, I figured, that’s not the case. Azure doesn’t support docker swarm mode in ACS yet – at least as of today (25th July 2017). Which forced me to come up with my own RM template that does the help.

What’s in it?

The RM template will provision the following resources:

  • A virtual network
  • An availability set for manager nodes
  • 3 virtual machines with the AV set created above. (the numbers, names can be parameterized as per your needs)
  • A load balancer (with public port that round-robins to the 3 VMs on port 80. And allows inbound NAT to the 3 machine via port 5000, 5001 and 5002 to ssh port 22).
  • Configures 3 VMs as docker swarm mode manager.
  • A Virtual machine scale set (VMSS) in the same VNET.
  • 3 Nodes that are joined as worker into the above swarm.
  • Load balancer for VMSS (that allows inbound NATs starts from range 50000 to ssh port 22 on VMSS)

The design can be visualized with the following diagram:

There’s a handly powershell that can help automate provisioing this resources. But you can also just click the “Deploy to Azure” button below.

Thanks!

The entire scripts can be found into this GitHub repo. Feel free to use – as needed!