Terraforming Azure DevOps

Background

In many organizations, specially in large enterprises there’s a need to automate Azure DevOps projects and Teams members. Manually managing large number of Azure DevOps projects, Teams for these projects and users to the teams, on-boarding and off-boarding team members are not trivial.

Besides managing the users sometimes, we just need to have an overview (a documentation?) of users and Teams of Projects. Terraform is a great tool for Infrastructure as Code – which not only allows providing infrastructure on demand, but also gives us nice documentation which can be versioned control in a source control system. The workflow kind of looks like following:

GitOps

I am developing a Terraform Provider for Azure DevOps that helps me use Terraform for provisioning Azure DevOps projects, Teams and members. In this article I will share how I am building it.

Note
This provider doesn't implement the complete set of 
Azure DevOps REST APIs. 
Its limited to only projects, teams and member associations. 
It's not recommended to use it in production scenarios.

Terraform Provider

Terrafom is an amazing tool that lets you define your infrastructure as code. Under the hood it’s an incredibly powerful state machine that makes API requests and marshals resources. Terraform has lots of providers – almost for every major cloud – out there. Including many other systems – like Kubernetes, Palo-Alto Networks etc.

In nutshell if any system has REST API that can be manipulated with Terraform Provider. Azure DevOps also has a terraform provider – which doesn’t currently provide resources to create Teams and members. Hence, I am writing my own – shamelessly using/stealing the Microsoft’s Terraform provider (referenced above) for project creation.

Setting up GO Environment

Terraform Providers and plugins are binaries that Terraform communicates during runtime via RPC. It’s theoretically possible to write a provider in any language, but to be honest, I haven’t come across any providers that were written other languages than GO. Terraform provide helper libraries in Go to aid in writing and testing providers.

I am developing in Windows 10 and didn’t want to install GO on my local machine. Containers come to rescue of course. I am using the “Remote development” extension in VS Code. This extension allows me to keep the source code in local machine and compile, build the source code in a container like Magic!

remote

Figure: Remote Development extension in VSCode – running container to build local repository.

Creating the provider

To create a Terraform provider we need to write the logic for managing the Creation, Reading, Updating and Deletion (CRUD) of a resource (i.e. Azure DevOps project, Team and members in this scenario) and Terraform will take care of the rest; state, locking, templating language and managing the lifecycle of the resources. Here in this repository I have a minimum implementation that supports creating Azure DevOps projects, Teams and its members.

First of all we define our provider and resources in main.go file.

Next to that, we will define the provider schema (the attributes it supports as input and outputs, resources etc.)

We are using Azure DevOps personal Access token to communicate to the Azure DevOps REST API. The GO client for Azure DevOps from Microsoft – which is used as dependency, immensely simplified the implementation and also helped learning the flow.

Now defining the “team” resource as following:

That’s all for declaring, now implementing the CRUD methods in resource providers. The full source code is in GitHub.

We can compile the provider application using following command:

> GOOS=windows GOARCH=amd64 go build -o terraform-provider-azuredevops.exe

As I am using Dabian docker image for GoLang I need to specify my target OS (GOOS=windows) and CPU Architecture (GOARCH=amd64) when I build the provider. This will produce the terraform provider for Azure DevOps executable.

Although it’s executable, it’s not meant to launch directly from command prompt. Instead, I will copy it to “%APPDATA%\ terraform.d\plugins\windows_amd64” folder of my machine.

Terraform Script for Azrue DevOps

Now we can write the Terraform file (.tf) that will describe the Azure DevOps Project, Team and members etc.

Terraform

With this terraform file, we can now launch the following command to initialize our terraform environment.

init

The terraform init command is used to initialize a working directory containing Terraform configuration files. This is the first command that should be run after writing a new Terraform configuration or cloning an existing one from version control.

Terraform plan

The terraform plan command is used to create an execution plan. Terraform performs a refresh, and then determines what actions are necessary to achieve the desired state specified in the configuration files. This command is a convenient way to check whether the execution plan for a set of changes matches your expectations without making any changes to real resources or to the state. For example, terraform plan might be run before committing a change to version control, to create confidence that it will behave as expected.

PLan

Figure: terraform plan output – shows exactly what is going to happen if we apply these changes to Azure DevOps

Terraform apply

The terraform apply command is used to apply the changes required to reach the desired state of the configuration, or the pre-determined set of actions generated by a terraform plan execution plan. We will launch it with an “-auto-approve” flag to assert the approval prompt.

apply

Now we can go to our Azure DevOps and sure enough there’s a new project created with the configuration as we scripted in Terraform file.

Taking it further

Now we can check in the terraform file (main.tf above) into an Azure DevOps repository and put a Branch policy to it. That will force any changes (such as creating new projects, adding removing team members) would requrie a Pull-Request and needs to be reviewed by peers (four-eyes principles). Once Pull-Requests are approved, a simple Azure Pipeline can trigger that does the terraform apply. And I have my workflow automated  and I also have nice histories in GIT – which records the purpose of any changes made in past.

Thanks for reading!

Access Control management via REST API – Azure Data Lake Gen 2

Background

A while ago, I have built an web-based self-service portal that facilitated multiple teams in the organisation, setting up their Access Control (ACLs) for corresponding data lake folders.

The portal application was targeting Azure Data Lake Gen 1. Recently I wanted to achieve the same but on Azure Data Lake Gen 2. At the time of writing this post, there’s no official NuGet package for ACL management targeting Data Lake Gen 2. One must rely on REST API only.

Read about known issues and limitations of Azure Data Lake Storage Gen 2

Further more, the REST API documentations do not provide example snippets like many other Azure resources. Therefore, it takes time to demystify the REST APIs to manipulate ACLs. Good new is, I have done that for you and will share a straight-forward C# class that wraps the details and issues correct REST API calls to a Data Lake Store Gen 2.

About Azure Data Lake Store Gen 2

Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 is a set of capabilities dedicated to big data analytics. Data Lake Storage Gen2 is significantly different from it’s earlier version known as Azure Data Lake Storage Gen1, Gen2 is entirely built on Azure Blob storage.

Data Lake Storage Gen2 is the result of converging the capabilities of two existing Azure storage services, Azure Blob storage and Azure Data Lake Storage Gen1. Gen1 Features such as file system semantics, directory, and file level security and scale are combined with low-cost, tiered storage, high availability/disaster recovery capabilities from Azure Blob storage.

Let’s get started!

Create a Service Principal

First we would need a service principal. We will use this principal to authenticate to Azure Active Directory (using OAuth 2.0 protocol) in order to authorize our REST calls. We will use Azure CLI to do that.

az ad sp create-for-rbac --name ServicePrincipalName
Add required permissions

Now you need to grant permission for your application to access Azure Storage.

  • Click on the application Settings
  • Click on Required permissions
  • Click on Add
  • Click Select API
  • Filter on Azure Storage
  • Click on Azure Storage
  • Click Select
  • Click the checkbox next to Access Azure Storage
  • Click Select
  • Click Done

App

Now we have Client ID, Client Secret and Tenant ID (take it from the Properties tab of Azure Active Directory – listed as Directory ID).

Access Token from Azure Active Directory

Let’s write some C# code to get an Access Token from Azure Active Directory:

Creating ADLS Gen 2 REST client

Once we have the token provider, we can jump in implementing the REST client for Azure Data Lake.

Data Lake  ACLs and POSIX permissions

The security model for Data Lake Gen2 supports ACL and POSIX permissions along with some extra granularity specific to Data Lake Storage Gen2. Settings may be configured through Storage Explorer or through frameworks like Hive and Spark. We will do that via REST API in this post.

There are two kinds of access control lists (ACLs), Access ACLs and Default ACLs.

  • Access ACLs: These control access to an object. Files and folders both have Access ACLs.
  • Default ACLs: A “template” of ACLs associated with a folder that determine the Access ACLs for any child items that are created under that folder. Files do not have Default ACLs.

Here’s the table of allowed grant types:

acl1

While we define ACLs we need to use a short form of these grant types. Microsoft Document explained these short form in below table:

posix

However, in our code we would also simplify the POSIX ACL notations by using some supporting classes as below. That way REST client consumers do not need to spend time building the short form of their aimed grant criteria’s.

Now we can create methods to perform different REST calls, let’s start by creating a file system.

Here we are retrieving a Access Token and then issuing a REST call to Azure Data Lake Storage Gen 2 API to create a new file system. Next, we will create a folder and file in it and then set some Access Control to them.

Let’s create the folder:

And creating file in it. Now, file creation (ingestion in Data Lake) is not that straight forward, at least, one can’t do that by a single call. We would have to first create an empty file, then we can write some content in it. We can also append content to an existing file. Finally, we would require to flush the buffer so the new content gets persisted.

Let’s do that, first we will see how to create an empty file:

The above snippet will create an empty file, now we will read all content from a local file (from PC) and write them into the empty file in Azure Data Lake that we just created.

Right! Now time to set Access control to the directory or files inside a directory. Here’s the method that we will use to do that.

The entire File system REST API class can be found here. Here’s an example how we can use this methods from a console application.

Conclusion

Until, there’s an Official Client Package released, if you’re into Azure Data Lake Store Gen 2 and wondering how to accomplish these REST calls – I hope this post helped you to move further!

Thanks for reading.

 

Linkerd in Azure Kubernetes Service cluster

In this article I would document my journey on setting up Linkerd Service Mesh on Azure Kubernetes service.

Background

I have a tiny Kubernetes cluster. I run some workload there, some are useful, others are just try-out, fun stuffs. I have few services that need to talk to each other. I do not have a lot of traffic to be honest, but I sometimes curiously run Apache ab to simulate load and see how my services perform under stress. Until very recently I was using a messaging (basically a pub-sub) pattern to create reactive service-to-service communication. Which works great, but often comes with a latency. I can only imagine, if I were to run these service to service communication for a mission critical high-traffic performance-driven scenario (an online game for instance), this model won’t fly well. There comes the need for a service-to-service communication pattern in cluster.

What’s big deal? We can have REST calls between services, even can implement gRPC for that matter. The issue is things behaves different at scale. When many services talks to many others, nodes fail in between, network address of PODs changes, new PODs show up, some goes down, figuring out where the service sits becomes quite a challenging task.

Then Kubernetes comes to rescue, Kubernetes provides “service”, that gives us service discovery out of the box. Which is awesome. Not all issues disappeared though. Services in a cluster need fault-tolerances, traceability and most importantly, “observability”.  Circuit-breakers, retry-logics etc. implementing them for each service is again a challenge. This is exactly the Service Mesh addresses.

Service mesh

From thoughtworks radar:

Service mesh is an approach to operating a secure, fast and reliable microservices ecosystem. It has been an important steppingstone in making it easier to adopt microservices at scale. It offers discovery, security, tracing, monitoring and failure handling. It provides these cross-functional capabilities without the need for a shared asset such as an API gateway or baking libraries into each service. A typical implementation involves lightweight reverse-proxy processes, aka sidecars, deployed alongside each service process in a separate container. Sidecars intercept the inbound and outbound traffic of each service and provide cross-functional capabilities mentioned above.

Some of us might remember Aspect Oriented programming (AOP) – where we used to separate cross cutting concerns from our core-business-concerns. Service mesh is no different. They isolate (in a separate container) these networking and fault-tolerance concerns from the core-capabilities (also running in container).

Linkerd

There are quite several service mesh solutions out there – all suitable to run in Kubernetes. I have used earlier Envoy and Istio. They work great in Kubernetes as well as VM hosted clusters. However, I must admit, I developed a preference for Linkerd since I discovered it. Let’s briefly look at how Linkerd works. Imagine the following two services, Service A and Service B. Service A talks to Service B.

service-2-service

When Linkerd installed, it works like an interceptor between all the communication between services. Linkerd uses sidecar pattern to proxy the communication by updating the KubeProxy IP Table.

Linkerd-architecture.png

Linkerd implants two sidecar containers in our PODs. The init container configures the IP table so the incoming and outgoing TCP traffics flow through the Linkerd Proxy container. The proxy container is the data plane that does the actual interception and all the other fault-tolerance goodies.

Primary reason behind my Linkerd preferences are performance and simplicity. Ivan Sim has done performance benchmarking with Linkerd and Istio:

Both the Linkerd2-meshed setup and Istio-meshed setup experienced higher latency and lower throughput, when compared with the baseline setup. The latency incurred in the Istio-meshed setup was higher than that observed in the Linkerd2-meshed setup. The Linkerd2-meshed setup was able to handle higher HTTP and GRPC ping throughput than the Istio-meshed setup.

Cluster provision

Spinning up AKS is easy as pie these days. We can use Azure Resource Manager Template or Terraform for that. I have used Terraform to generate that.

Service deployment

This is going to take few minutes and then we have a cluster. We will use the canonical emojivoto app (“buoyantio/emojivoto-emoji-svc:v8”) to test our Linkerd installation. Here’s the Kubernetes manifest file for that.

With this IaC – we can run Terraform apply to provision our AKS cluster in Azure.

Azure Pipeline

Let’s create a pipeline for the service deployment. The easiest way to do that is to create a service connection to our AKS cluster. We go to the project settings in Azure DevOps project, pick Service connections and create a new service connection of type “Kubernetes connection”.

Azure DevOps connection

Installing Linkerd

We will create a pipeline that installs Linkerd into the AKS cluster. Azure Pipeline now offers “pipeline-as-code” – which is just an YAML file that describes the steps need to be performed when the pipeline is triggered. We will use the following pipeline-as-code:

We can at this point trigger the pipeline to install Linkerd into the AKS cluster.

Linkerd installation (2)

Deployment of PODs and services

Let’s create another pipeline as code that deploys all the services and deployment resources to AKS using the following Kubernetes manifest file:

In Azure Portal we can already see our services running:

Azure KS

Also in Kubernetes Dashboard:

Kub1

We have got our services running – but they are not really affected by Linkerd yet. We will add another step into the build pipeline to tell Linkerd to do its magic.

Next thing, we trigger the pipeline and put some traffic into the service that we have just deployed. The emoji service is simulating some service to service invocation scenarios and now it’s time for us to open the Linkerd dashboard to inspect all the distributed traces and many other useful matrix to look at.

linkerd-censored

We can also see kind of an application map – in a graphical way to understand which service is calling who and what is request latencies etc.

linkerd-graph

Even fascinating, Linkerd provides some drill-down to the communications in Grafana Dashboard.

ezgif.com-gif-maker.gif

Conclusion

I have enjoyed a lot setting it up and see the outcome and wanted to share my experience with it. If you are looking into Service Mesh and read this post, I strongly encourage to give Linkerd a go, it’s awesome!

Thanks for reading.

CloudOven – Terraform at ease!

TL;DR:

  • URL: CloudOven 

  • Use Google account or sign-up 
  • Google Chrome please! (I’ve not tested on other browsers yet)

e2e

Background

In recent years I have spent fair amount of time in design and implementation of Infrastructure as code in larger enterprise context. Terraform seemed to be a tool of choice when it comes to preserve the uniformity in Infrastructure as code targeting multiple cloud providers. It is rapidly becoming a de facto choice for creating and managing cloud infrastructures by writing declarative definitions. It’s popular because the syntax of its files is quite readable and because it supports several cloud providers while making no attempt to provide an artificial abstraction across those providers. The active community will add support for the latest features from most cloud providers.

However, rolling out Terraform in many enterprises has its own barrier to face. Albeit the syntax (HCL) is neat, but not every developers or Infrastructure operators in organizations finds it easy. There’s a learning curve and often many of us lose momentum discovering the learning effort. I believe if we could make the initial ramp-up easier more people would play with it.

That’s one of my motivation for this post, following is the other one.

Blazor meets Terraform

Lately I was learning Blazor – the new client-side technology from Microsoft. Like many others, I find one effective way learning a new technology by creating/building solution to a problem. I have decided to build a user interface that will help creating terraform scripts easier. I will share my journey in this post.

Resource Discovery in Terraform Providers

Terraform is powerful for its providers. You will find Terraform providers for all major cloud providers (Azure, AWS, Google etc.). The providers then allow us to define “resource” and “data source” in Terraform scripts. These resource and data source have arguments and attributes that one must know while creating terraform files. Luckily, they are documented nicely in Terraform site. However, it still requires us to jump back and forth to the documentation site and terraform file editor (i.e. VSCode).

Azure-Discovery

To make this experience easier, I wrote a crawler application that downloads the terraform providers (I am doing it for Azure, AWS and google for now) and discovers the attributes and arguments for each and every resource and data source. I also try to extract the documentation for every attributes and arguments from the terraform documentation site with a layman parsing (not 100% accurate but works for majority. Something I will improve soon).

GoogleAWS-discovery

This process generates JSON structure for each resource and data source, enriches them with the documentation and stores them in an Azure Blob Storage.

Building Infrastructure as code

Now that I have a structured data store with all resources and data sources for any terraform provider, I can leverage that building a user interface on top of it. To keep things a bit organized, I started with a concept of “project”.

workflow
The workflow

Project

I can start by creating a project (well, it can be a product too, but let’s not get to that debate). Project is merely a logical boundary here.

Blueprint

Within a project I can create Blueprint(s). Blueprint(s) are the entity that retains the elements of the infrastructure that we are aiming to create. For instance, a Blueprint targets to a Cloud provider (i.e. Azure). Then I can create the elements (resource and data sources) within the blueprint (i.e. Azure Web App, Cosmos DB etc.).

provider-configuration

Blueprints keeps the base structure of all the infrastructure elements. It allows defining variables (plain and simple terraform variables) so the actual values can vary in different environments (dev, test, pre-production, production etc.).

Once I am happy with the blueprint, I can download them as a zip – that contains the terraform scripts (main.tf and variable.tf). That’s it, we have our infrastructure as code in Terraform. I can execute them on a local development machine or check them in to source control – whatever I prefer.

storage_account

One can stop here and keep using the blueprint feature to generate Infrastructure as code. That’s what it is for. However, the next features are just to make the overall experience of running terraform a bit easier.

Environments

Next to blueprint, we can create as many environments we want. Again, just a logical entity to keep isolation of actual deployment for different environments.

Deployments

Deployment entity is the glue that ties a blueprint to a specific environment. For instance, I can define a blueprint for “order management” service (or micro-service maybe?), create an environment as “test” and then create a “deployment” for “order management” on “test”. This is where I can define constant values to the blueprint variable that are specific to the test environment.

Terraform State

Perhaps the most important aspect the deployment entity holds is the terraform state management. Terraform must store state about your managed infrastructure and configuration. This state is used by Terraform to map real world resources to your configuration, keep track of metadata, and to improve performance for large infrastructures. This state is stored by default in a local file named “terraform.tfstate”, but it can also be stored remotely, which works better in a team environment. Defining the state properties (varies in different cloud providers) in deployment entity makes the remote state management easier – specifically in team environment. It will configure the remote state to the appropriate remote backend. For instance, when the blueprint cloud provider is set to Azure, it will configure Azure Storage account as terraform state remote backend, for AWS it will pick S3 automatically.

e2e

Terraform plan

Once we have deployment entity configured, we can directly from the user interface run “terraform plan”. The terraform plan command creates an execution plan. Unless explicitly disabled, it performs a refresh, and then determines what actions are necessary to achieve the desired state specified in the blueprint. This command is a convenient way to check whether the execution plan for a set of changes matches your expectations without making any changes to real resources or to the state. For example, terraform plan might be run before committing a change to version control, to create confidence that it will behave as expected.

Terraform apply

The terraform apply command is used to apply the changes required to reach the desired state of the configuration, or the pre-determined set of actions generated by a terraform plan execution plan. Like “plan”, the “apply” command can also be issued directly from the user interface.

Terraform plan and apply both are issued in an isolated docker container and the output is captured and displayed back to the user interface. However, there’s a cost associated running docker containers on cloud, therefore, it’s disabled in the public site.

Final thoughts

It was fun to write a tool like this. I recommend you give it a go. Especially if you are stepping into Terraform. It can also be helpful for experienced Terraform developers – specifically with the on-screen documenation, type inferance and discovery features.

Some features, I have working progress:

  • Ability to define policy for each resources and data types
  • Save a Blueprint as custom module

Stay tuned!

 

Continuously deliver changes to Azure API management service with Git Configuration Repository

What is API management

Publishing data, insights and business capabilities via API in a unified way can be challenging at times. Azure API management (APIM) makes it simpler than ever.

Businesses everywhere are looking to extend their operations as a digital platform, creating new channels, finding new customers and driving deeper engagement with existing ones. API Management provides the core competencies to ensure a successful API program through developer engagement, business insights, analytics, security, and protection. You can use Azure API Management to take any backend and launch a full-fledged API program based on it. [Source]

The challenge – Continuous Deployment

These days, it’s very common to have many distributed services (let’s say Micro service) publish APIs in a mesh up Azure API management portal. For instance, Order and Invoice APIs are published over an E-Commerce API portal, although they are backed by isolated Order and Invoice Micro services. Autonomous teams build these APIs, often work in isolation’s but their API specifications (mostly Open API specification Swagger documents) must be published through a shared API management Service. Different teams with different release cadence can make the continuous deployment of API portal challenging and error prone.

Azure API management ships bunch of Power Shell cmdlets (i.e. Import-AzureRmApiManagementApi  and Publish-AzureRmApiManagementTenantGitConfiguration ) that allow deploying the API documentation directly to APIM. Which works great for single API development team. It gets a bit trickier when multiple teams are pushing changes to a specific APIM instance like the example above. Every team needs to have deployment credentials in their own release pipelines – which might undesirable for a Shared APIM instance. Centrally governing these changes becomes difficult.

APIM Configuration Git Repository

APIM instance has a pretty neat feature. Each APIM instance has a configuration database associated as a Git Repository, containing the metadata and configuration information for the APIM instance. We can clone the configuration repository and push changes back- using our very familiar Git commands and tool sets and APIM allows us to publish those changes that are pushed – sweet!

This allows us downloading different versions of our APIM configuration state. Managing bulk APIM configurations (this includes, API specifications, Products, Groups, Policies and branding styles etc.) in one central repository with very familiar Git tools, is super convenient.

The following diagram shows an overview of the different ways to configure your API Management service instance.

api-management-git-configure

[Source]

This sounds great! However, we will leverage this capability and make it even nicer, where multiple teams can develop their API’s without depending on others release schedules and we can have a central release pipeline that publishes the changes from multiple API services.

Solution design

The idea is pretty straight forward. Each team develop their owner API specification and when they want to release, they create PR (Pull Request) to a shared Repository. Which contains the APIM configuration clone. Once peer reviewed the PR and merged, the release pipeline kicks in. Which deploys the changes to Azure APIM.

The workflow looks like following:

workflow
Development and deployment workflow

Building the solution

We will provision a APIM instance on Azure. We can do that with an ARM template (We will not go into the details of that, you can use this GitHub template ).

Once we have APIM provisioned, we can see the Git Repository is not yet synchronized with the Configuration Database. (notice Out  of sync in the following image)

Out of sync

We will sync it and clone a copy of the configuration database in our local machine using the following Power Shell script. (You need to run Login-AzureRMAccount in Power Shell console, if you are not already logged in to Azure).

$context = New-AzureRmApiManagementContext `
        -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroup `
        -ServiceName $ServiceName
    Write-Output "Initializing context...Completed"

    Write-Output "Syncing Git Repo with current API management state..."
    Save-AzureRmApiManagementTenantGitConfiguration `
        -Context $context `
        -Branch 'master' `
        -PassThru -Force

This will make the Git Repository synced.

Sync

To clone the repository to local machine, we need to generate Git Credentials first. Let’s do that now:

Function ExecuteGitCommand {
    param
    (
        [System.Object[]]$gitCommandArguments
    )

    $gitExePath = "C:\Program Files\git\bin\git.exe"
    & $gitExePath $gitCommandArguments
}

 

$expiry = (Get-Date) + '1:00:00'
    $parameters = @{
        "keyType" = "primary"
        "expiry"  = ('{0:yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.000Z}' -f $expiry)
    }

    $resourceId = '/subscriptions/{0}/resourceGroups/{1}/providers/Microsoft.ApiManagement/service/{2}/users/git' -f $SubscriptionId, $ResourceGroup, $ServiceName

    if ((Test-Path -Path $TempDirectory )) {
        Remove-Item $TempDirectory -Force -Recurse -ErrorAction "Stop"
    }

    $gitRemoteSrcPath = Join-Path -Path $TempDirectory -ChildPath 'remote-api-src'

    Write-Output "Retrieving Git Credentials..."
    $gitUsername = 'apim'
    $gitPassword = (Invoke-AzureRmResourceAction `
            -Action 'token' `
            -ResourceId $resourceId `
            -Parameters $parameters `
            -ApiVersion '2016-10-10' `
            -Force).Value
    $escapedGitPassword = [System.Uri]::EscapeDataString($gitPassword)
    Write-Output "Retrieving Git Credentials...Completed"

    $gitRepositoryUrl = 'https://{0}:{1}@{2}.scm.azure-api.net/' -f $gitUsername, $escapedGitPassword, $ServiceName
    ExecuteGitCommand -gitCommandArguments @("clone", "$gitRepositoryUrl", "$gitRemoteSrcPath")

Now, we have a copy of the Git in our local machine. This is just a mirror of our APIM configuration database. We will create a repository in our Source Control (I am using VSTS). This will be our Shared APIM source repository. Every team will issue Pull Request with their API Specification into this repository. Which can be approved by other peers and eventually merged to master branch.

Building the release pipeline

Time to deploy changes from our Shared Repository to APIM instance. We will require following steps to perform:

  1. Sync the configuration database to APIM Git Repository.
  2. Clone the latest changes to our Build agent.
  3. Copy all updated API specifications, approved and merged to our VSTS repository’s master branch to the cloned repository.
  4. Commit all changes to the cloned repository.
  5. Push changes from clone repository to origin.
  6. Publish changes from Git Repository to APIM instance.

I have compiled a single Power Shell script that does all these steps- in that order. Idea is to, use this Power Shell script in our release pipeline to deploy releases to APIM. The complete scripts is given below:

Final thoughts

The Git Repository model for deploying API specifications to a single APIM instance makes it extremely easy to manage. Despite the fact, we could have done this with Power Shell alone. But in multiple team scenario that gets messy pretty quick. Having a centrally leading Git Repository as release gateway (and the only way to make any changes to APIM instance) reduces the complexity to minimum.

OpenSSL as Service

OpenSSL is awesome! Though, requires little manual work to remember all the commands, executing them in a machine that has OpenSSL installed. In this post, I’m about to build an HTTP API over OpenSSL, with the most commonly used commands (and the possibility to extend it further – as required). This will help folks who wants to run OpenSSL in a private network but wants to orchestrate it in their automation workflows.

Background

Ever wanted to automate the TLS (also known as SSL) configuration process for your web application? You know, the sites that served via HTTPS and Chrome shows a green “secure” mark in address bar. Serving site over HTTP is insecure (even for static contents) and major browsers will mark those sites as not secure, Chrome already does that today.

Serving contents via HTTPS involves buying a digital certificate (aka SSL/TLS certificate) from certificate authorities (CA). The process seemed complicated (sometimes expensive too) by many average site owners or developers. Let’s encrypt addressed this hardship and made it painless. It’s an open certificate authority that provides free TLS certificates in an automated and elegant way.

However, free certificates might not be ideal for enterprise scenarios. Enterprise might have a requirement to buy certificate from a specific CA. In many cases, that process is manual and often complicated and slow. Typically, the workflow starts by generating a Certificate Signing request (also known as CSR) which requires generating asymmetric key pair (a public and private key pair). Which is then sent to CA to get a Digital Identity certificate. This doesn’t stop here. Once the certificate is provided by the CA, sometimes (Specially if you are in IIS, .net or Azure world) it’s needed to be converted to a PFX (Personal Information Exchange) file to deploy the certificate to the web server.

PFX (aka PKCS #12) is a file format defines an archive file format for storing many cryptography objects as a single file. It’s used to bundle a private key with it’s X.509 certificate or bundling all the members of a chain of trust. This file may be encrypted and signed. The internal storage containers (aka SafeBags), may also be encrypted and signed.

Generating CSR, converting a Digital Identity certificate to PFX format are often done manually. There are some online services that allows you generating CSRs – via an API or an UI. These are very useful and handy, but not the best fit for an enterprise. Because the private keys need to be shared with the online provider – to generate the CSR. Which leads people to use the vastly popular utility – OpenSSL in their local workstation – generating CSRs. In this article, this is exactly what I am trying to avoid. I wanted to have an API over OpenSSL – so that I can invoke it from my other automation workflow running in the Cloud.

Next, we will see how we can expose the OpenSSL over HTTP API in a Docker container, so we can run the container in our private enterprise network and orchestrate this in our certificate automation workflows.

The Solution Design

We will write a .net core web app, exposing the OpenSSL command via web API. Web API requests will fork OpenSSL process with the command and will return the outcome as web API response.

OpenSSL behind .net core Web API

We are using System.Diagnostics.Process to lunch OpenSSL in our code. This is assuming we will have OpenSSL executable present in our path. Which we will ensure soon with Docker.

        private static StringBuilder ExecuteOpenSsl(string command)
        {
            var logs = new StringBuilder();
            var executableName = "openssl";
            var processInfo = new ProcessStartInfo(executableName)
            {
                Arguments = command,
                UseShellExecute = false,
                RedirectStandardError = true,
                RedirectStandardOutput = true,
                CreateNoWindow = true
            };

            var process = Process.Start(processInfo);
            while (!process.StandardOutput.EndOfStream)
            {
                logs.AppendLine(process.StandardOutput.ReadLine());
            }
            logs.AppendLine(process.StandardError.ReadToEnd());
            return logs;
        }

This is simply kicking off OpenSSL executable with a command and capturing the output (or errors). We can now use this in our Web API controller.

    /// <summary>
    /// The Open SSL API
    /// </summary>
    [Produces("application/json")]
    [Route("api/OpenSsl")]
    public class OpenSslController : Controller
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new CSR
        /// </summary>
        /// Payload info
        /// The CSR with private key
        [HttpPost("CSR")]
        public async Task Csr([FromBody] CsrRequestPayload payload)
        {
            var response = await CertificateManager.GenerateCSRAsync(payload);
            return new JsonResult(response);
        }

This snippet only shows one example, where we are receiving a CSR generation request and using the OpenSSL to generate, returning the CSR details (in a base64 encoded string format) as API response.

Other commands are following the same model, so skipping them here.

Building Docker Image

Above snippet assumes that we have OpenSSL installed in the machine and the executable’s path is registered in our system’s path. We will turn that assumption to a fact by installing OpenSSL in our Docker image.

FROM microsoft/aspnetcore:2.0 AS base

RUN apt-get update -y
RUN apt-get install openssl

Here we are using aspnetcore:2.0 as our base image (which is a Linux distribution) and installing OpenSSL right after.

Let’s Run it!

I have built the docker image and published it to Docker Hub. All we need is to run it:

Untitled-1

The default port of the web API is 80, though in this example we will run it on 8080. Let’s open a browser pointing to:

http:localhost:8080/ 

Voila! We have our API’s. Here’s the Swagger UI for the web API.

swagger

And we can test our CSR generation API via Postman:

Postman

The complete code for this web app with Docker file can be found in this GitHub Repository. The Docker image is in Docker Hub.

Thanks for reading.

Deploying Azure web job written in .net core

Lately I have written a .net core web job and wanted to publish it via CD (continuous deployment) from Visual Studio Online. Soon I figured, Azure Web Job SDK doesn’t support (yet) .net core. The work I expected will take 10 mins took about an hour.

If you are also figuring out this, this blog post is what you are looking for.

I will describe the steps and provide a PowerShell script that does the deployment via Kudu API. Kudu is the Source Control management for Azure app services, which has a Zip API that allows us to deploy zipped folder into an Azure app service.

Here are the steps you need to follow. You can start by creating a simple .net core console application. Add a Power Shell file into the project that will do the deployment in your Visual Studio online release pipeline. The Power Shell script will do the following:

  • Publish the project (using dotnet publish)
  • Make a zip out of the artifacts
  • Deploy the zip into the Azure web app

Publishing the project

We will use dotnet publish command to publish our project.

$resourceGroupName = "my-regource-group"
$webAppName = "my-web-job"
$projectName = "WebJob"
$outputRoot = "webjobpublish"
$ouputFolderPath = "webjobpublish\App_Data\Jobs\Continuous\my-web-job"
$zipName = "publishwebjob.zip"

$projectFolder = Join-Path `
    -Path "$((get-item $PSScriptRoot ).FullName)" `
    -ChildPath $projectName
$outputFolder = Join-Path `
    -Path "$((get-item $PSScriptRoot ).FullName)" `
    -ChildPath $ouputFolderPath
$outputFolderTopDir = Join-Path `
    -Path "$((get-item $PSScriptRoot ).FullName)" `
    -ChildPath $outputRoot
$zipPath = Join-Path `
    -Path "$((get-item $PSScriptRoot ).FullName)" `
    -ChildPath $zipName

if (Test-Path $outputFolder)
  { Remove-Item $outputFolder -Recurse -Force; }
if (Test-path $zipName) {Remove-item $zipPath -Force}
$fullProjectPath = "$projectFolder\$projectName.csproj"

dotnet publish "$fullProjectPath"
     --configuration release --output $outputFolder

Create a compressed artifact folder

We will use System.IO.Compression.Filesystem assembly to create the zip file.

Add-Type -assembly "System.IO.Compression.Filesystem"
[IO.Compression.Zipfile]::CreateFromDirectory(
        $outputFolderTopDir, $zipPath)

Upload the zip into Azure web app

Next step is to upload the zip file into the Azure web app. This is where we first need to fetch the credentials for the Azure web app and then use the Kudu API to upload the content. Here’s the script:

function Get-PublishingProfileCredentials
         ($resourceGroupName, $webAppName) {

    $resourceType = "Microsoft.Web/sites/config"
    $resourceName = "$webAppName/publishingcredentials"

    $publishingCredentials = Invoke-AzureRmResourceAction `
                 -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName `
                 -ResourceType $resourceType `
                 -ResourceName $resourceName `
                 -Action list `
                 -ApiVersion 2015-08-01 `
                 -Force
    return $publishingCredentials
}

function Get-KuduApiAuthorisationHeaderValue
         ($resourceGroupName, $webAppName) {

    $publishingCredentials =
      Get-PublishingProfileCredentials $resourceGroupName $webAppName

    return ("Basic {0}" -f `
        [Convert]::ToBase64String( `
        [Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetBytes(("{0}:{1}"
           -f $publishingCredentials.Properties.PublishingUserName, `
        $publishingCredentials.Properties.PublishingPassword))))
}

$kuduHeader = Get-KuduApiAuthorisationHeaderValue `
    -resourceGroupName $resourceGroupName `
    -webAppName $webAppName

$Headers = @{
    Authorization = $kuduHeader
}

# use kudu deploy from zip file
Invoke-WebRequest `
    -Uri https://$webAppName.scm.azurewebsites.net/api/zipdeploy `
    -Headers $Headers `
    -InFile $zipPath `
    -ContentType "multipart/form-data" `
    -Method Post

# Clean up the artifacts now
if (Test-Path $outputFolder)
      { Remove-Item $outputFolder -Recurse -Force; }
if (Test-path $zipName) {Remove-item $zipPath -Force}

PowerShell task in Visual Studio Online

Now we can leverage the Azure PowerShell task in Visual Studio Release pipeline and invoke the script to deploy the web job.

That’s it!

Thanks for reading, and have a nice day!