Secure Azure Web sites with Web Application Gateway wtih end-to-end SSL connections

The Problem

In order to met higher compliance demands and often as security best practices, we want to put an Azure web site behind an Web Application Firewall (aka WAF). The WAF provides known malicious security attack vectors mitigation’s defined in OWASP top 10 security vulnerabilities. Azure Application Gateway is a layer 7 load balancer that provides WAF out of the box. However, restricting a Web App access with Application Gateway is not trivial.
To achieve the best isolation and hence protection, we can provision Azure Application Service Environment (aka ASE) and put all the web apps inside the virtual network of the ASE. The is by far the most secure way to lock down a web application and other Azure resources from internet access. But ASE deployment has some other consequences, it is costly, and also, because the web apps are totally isolated and sitting in a private VNET, dev-team needs to adopt a unusual deployment pipeline to continuously deploy changes into the web apps. Which is not an ideal solution for many scenarios.
However, there’s an intermediate solution architecture that provides WAF without getting into the complexities that AES brings into the solution architecture, allowing sort of best of both worlds. The architecture looks following:

The idea is to provision an Application Gateway inside a virtual network and configure it as a reverse proxy to the Azure web app. This means, the web app should never receive traffics directly, but only through the gateway. The Gateway needs to configure with the custom domain and SSL certificates. Once a request receives, the gateway then off-load the SSL and create another SSL to the back-end web apps configured into a back-end pool. For a development purpose, the back-end apps can use the Azure wildcard certificates (*.azurewebsites.net) but for production scenarios, it’s recommended to use a custom certificate. To make sure, no direct traffic gets through the azure web apps, we also need to white-list the gateway IP address into the web apps. This will block every requests except the ones coming through the gateway.

How to do that?

I have prepared an Azure Resource Manager template into this Github repo, that will provision the following:

  • Virtual network (Application Gateway needs a Virtual network).
  • Subnet for the Application Gateway into the virtual network.
  • Public IP address for the Application Gateway.
  • An Application Gateway that pre-configured to protect any Azure Web site.

How to provision?

Before you run the scripts you need the following:
  • Azure subscription
  • Azure web site to guard with WAF
  • SSL certificate to configure the Front-End listeners. (This is the Gateway Certificate which will be approached by the end-users (browsers basically) of your apps). Typically a Personal Information Exchange (aka pfx) file.
  • The password of the pfx file.
  • SSL certificate that used to protect the Azure web sites, typically a *.cer file. This can be the *.azurewebsites.net for development purpose.
You need to fill out the parameters.json file with the appropriate values, some examples are given below:
        "vnetName": {
            "value": "myvnet"
        },
        "appGatewayName": {
            "value": "mygateway"
        },
        "azureWebsiteFqdn": {
            "value": "myapp.azurewebsites.net"
        },
        "frontendCertificateData": {
            "value": ""
        },
        "frontendCertificatePassword": {
            "value": ""
        },
        "backendCertificateData": {
            "value": ""
        }
Here, frontendCertificateData needs to be Base64 encoded content of your pfx file.
Once you have the pre-requisites, go to powershell and run:
    $> ./deploy.ps1 `
        -subscriptionId "" `
        -resourceGroupName ""
This will provision the Application Gatway in your resource group.

Important !

The final piece of work that you need to do, is to whitelist the IP address of the Application Gatway into your Azure Web App. This is to make sure, nobody can manage a direct access to your Azure web app, unless they come through the gateway only.

Contribute

Contribution is always appreciated.

Author: Moim Hossain

I develop softwares that solve problems

One thought on “Secure Azure Web sites with Web Application Gateway wtih end-to-end SSL connections”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s